Solid State Lithium Polymer as Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Technology #17109

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Inventors
Professor Gerbrand Ceder
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT
External Link (web.mit.edu)
Jae Chul Kim
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT
William Richards
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT
Lincoln Miara
Samsung Electronics
Yan Wang
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT
Managed By
Christopher Noble
MIT Technology Licensing Officer - Clean and Renewable Energy
Patent Protection

Solid Electrolyte and/or Electroactive Material

US Patent Pending
Publications
Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries: Potential Alternatives to Current Lithium-Ion Batteries
Advanced Energy Materials, 14 May 2012: 10.1002/aenm.201200026
Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors
Nature Materials, 14, 1026–1031 (2015)

Applications

The lithium-polymer battery differentiates itself from conventional lithium ion batteries in the type of electrolyte used; however, the desire to create higher energy density batteries have spurred an interest in replacing the low-conductivity liquid electrolyte with a safer, more stable electrolyte material: a solid electrolyte. Applications for this technology can be found in lithium ion battery manufacturing, consumer electronics, and hybrid vehicles.

Problem Addressed

Current lithium ion batteries use a carbonate-based liquid with high Li+ conductivity as the electrolyte. However, the liquid electrolyte is deemed dangerous due to its flammability and instability in a highly oxidizing environment. Therefore, this technology develops a solid electrolyte that provides safer operation for the electrochemical energy storage in lithium ion batteries. Existing solid-based electrolytes, although safer than liquid-based electrolytes, are very expensive and the amount of charge carriers are difficult to control. Consequently, current lithium ion batteries are difficult to reproduce in a large-scale , for which the solid electrolytes are mostly necessary.

Technology

This approach introduces Li+ interstitials as charge carriers by doping S2- onto Cl- sites in Li3ClO. Li3ClO compounds are synthesized by a mechano-chemical process including ballmilling, heat treatment, and densification. The ionic conductivity was tested by contacting disc-shaped pellets with stainless steel rods for impedance spectroscopy measurement. The impedance spectroscopy results show that the S substitution indeed improves the superionic conductivity in Li3ClO, which is beneficial because it enhances ion movement in solid electrolytes and thus allows for the manufacture of low cost and environmentally friendly batteries. 

Advantages

  • Low Cost
  • Environmentally friendly
  • Low migration factor