Low-Cost Graphene Oxide Gas Sensor

Technology #18412

Questions about this technology? Ask a Technology Manager

Download Printable PDF

Professor Luis Velasquez-Garcia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT
External Link (www-mtl.mit.edu)
Anthony Taylor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, MIT
External Link (www-mtl.mit.edu)
Managed By
Jim Freedman
MIT Technology Licensing Officer - Chemicals, Instruments, Consumer Products
Patent Protection

Graphene Oxide Sensors

US Patent Pending
Conductometric Sensing of H2 by Chromium Niobate
IEEE Sensors Journal, 15 (12): 7054-60, Dec., 2015
Surface state model for metal oxide p-type conductometric CO sensors
2013 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) , 13662560: 88-92, May 6, 2013


  • Sensing reactive gas species in vacuum lines and abatement systems

Problem Addressed

Conductometric gas sensors, based on semiconducting metal oxide films, are widely used in gas sensing due to their simplicity, flexibility in production, and broad applicability. Typically, the adsorption of a gas molecule on the surface of a metal oxide film alters surface electronic properties, causing a change in electrical conductivity, which can be measured with simple electronics. Unfortunately, many metal oxides used in sensing suffer from low catalytic activity, reducing device sensitivity. Resolving this problem requires doping with expensive noble metal nanoparticles, thereby precluding the use of these sensors in low-cost applications.


The technology is a low-cost graphene oxide conductometric gas sensor that uses an ultrathin film made of graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes for transduction. GO is used as the active material for conductometric gas sensing due to its high sensitivity to reactive gases and harsh environmental compatibility. The fabrication process uses electrospray printing without needing high temperature or high vacuum processing conditions, but allows for precise control of film properties, is compatible with low-cost, large-area manufacturing and can use a variety of feedstock liquid suspensions. The printed graphene oxide devices successfully detected ammonia at concentrations down to 500 parts per million in a vacuum at 1 Torr pressure, and was able to measure relative humidity in atmospheric pressure stabilizing in less than a minute.


  • Excellent for low-cost applications with high signal-to-noise ratio in device outputs
  • Linear response to humidity in the 7-63% relative humidity range
  • Dynamic response of GO sensors equivalent to commercial humidity sensors
  • No post heat treatment, harsh chemical reduction or doping with metal nanoparticles
  • Quickly stabilizes with humidity in less than 1 minute
  • Active area an order of magnitude smaller than competing humidity sensors