The invention assembles electrochemical devices, such as batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, and electrochromic displays, with longer life cycles and lower manufacturing costs by using fabrication techniques involving electrical potential and electric fields.
Low-performance batteries result from the manufacturing constraints limited by the available shapes of batteries. The formation of battery electrodes by electrophoretic deposition expands the manufacturing capabilities by removing the necessity for inserting a discrete separator film, and thus allowing the assembly of a variety of electrochemical device architectures, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional constructions for batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and sensors. The new electrophoretic deposition assembly methods reduce manufacturing costs and improve energy density, power density, and life cycle in comparison to traditional batteries that rely on discrete separator films.
This invention concerns methods in which electrical potentials and electric fields are used in order to form electrochemical junctions between positive and negative electrodes, and electrochemical devices using these methods. Said devices may have a variety of internal designs or architectures including those of 1, 2, and 3-dimensional construction. These include laminated devices, bobbin construction batteries and variants thereof, planar interpenetrating electrode structures, and 3D interdigitated and interpenetrating structures, such as those based on the infiltration of a porous electrode with an opposing electrode. The methods and devices of the invention can be "separatorless" by virtue of having an in-situ formed electronically insulating, ionically conductive layer between the anode and cathode. This is beneficial for fabricating 3D interpenetrating architectures, where electrical separation between two high surface area interpenetrating electrodes can be difficult to achieve.
- Lower manufacturing costs
- Higher energy and power density
- Longer life cycle